In order to address properly, without any ideological prejudice, but with intellectual honesty, the question about drug production in Afghanistan and the related international problems, it is necessary and useful to define (even if in broad terms) the geopolitical framework and to further clarify certain concepts, usually assumed to be understood and widely shared.
Over the last few years the relationships between Russia and Italy have achieved excellence and among European Union countries Italy is the one whit...
A power struggle between local oligarchies and a variable element in the “Great Game” being played out in Central Asia between America, Russia and China. This is the opinion expressed by Tiberio Graziani, editor-in-chief of the geopolitical magazine Eurasia, on the recent political turbulence in Kirghizstan. At the beginning of April President Kurmanbek Bakiyev was removed from power following a series of revolts and street clashes marked by violence with at least 80 people killed and over 500 wounded. Five years ago it had been Bakiyev himself, who has now taken refuge in Minsk under the protection of the Byelorussian head of state Aleksander Lukashenko, who had come to power using street protests in which a number of people were killed, removing his predecessor Askar Akayev after what was renamed the “Tulip Revolution.”
Professor Philip Kelly, respected expert in geopolitics, have done an interesting review of Tiberio Graziani's paper published in no. 1/2010 of Italia “Eurasia” journal. In his opinion, world isn't multipolar but still unipolar, Russia isnt' able to involve other continental poles in a common geopolitics of Eurasian safety which exclude Thalassocracy, European Union deserve to be included among hegemonic players more than others, in particular than India, Latin America hasn't an important role in world geopolitics. Here the answer by T. Graziani and D. Scalea.
The geopolitical history of the Arctic can be divided, in a preliminary approximation, into at least three cycles. A first great cycle, which we can call the cycle of great exploration and of the initial Arctic maritime activity (maritimisation) can be defined starting around 1553, that is, when the English navigator Hugh Willoughby began searching for a North-East passage, and going to the second half of the 1820s. With the new entrant in the circum-polar navigation club, frictions arose that marked the successive phase of the geopolitical history of the Arctic. This is the cycle of sovereignty or territorial claims, which began in 1826 with the delimitation of the frontier and terminated in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR. The third cycle, which we can define as Arctic regional identity or multilateralism, placed between 1990 and the first years of this century, is marked by Moscow’s slight commitment – geopolitically fallen back into itself after the collapse of soviet structure – in supporting its own regional interests, by the renewed tensions between Canada and the US, by the timid presence of the European Union, which states the so-called policy of the Nordic Dimension, and, in particular, by some international or multilateral initiatives.
The new multipolar system is being consolidated. The main actors are the US, China, India and Russia. While the European Union is completely absent and in hiding in the framework of indications-diktats coming from Washington and London, some South American countries, particularly Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina and Uruguay, are showing their steady willingness to actively participate in the construction of the new world order. Russia, with its central position in the Euro-Asian land mass, its vast size and its current orientation stamped on foreign policy by the Putin-Medvedev tandem, will probably be the keystone in the new planetary structure. But to achieve this epochal function, it must overcome some internal problems: first of all, those regarding the demographic question and the modernization of the country, while on the international level it must consolidate relations with China and India and establish strategic agreements with Turkey and Japan as soon as possible. Above all, it must clarify its position in the Near and Middle East.
Among the many events in international relations, two are, in our opinion, of pivotal importance for their contribution to the upsetting of the former geopolitical asset, based at the time on the conflict between the United States and the URSS. We are speaking of the Islamic revolution in Iran and of the Russian military involvement in Afghanistan. Following the takeover of Iran by the Ayatollah Khomeyni, one of the essential pillars of the western geopolitical architecture, with the USA as a leader, was destroyed. The Washington strategists, in agreement with their bicentenary “geopolitical of chaos”, persuaded the Iraq under Saddam Hussein to start a war against Iran. The destabilization of the whole area allowed Washington and the Western Countries enough time to plan a long-lasting strategy and in the meantime to wear down the soviet bear.
Abkhazia has long ago chosen its own direction, and the public reliance towards the current leadership is an important resource to rule this very particular country. Indeed, Abkhazia will soon clarify the main targets of its economic development, focusing especially on tourism and agronomy. Today, thanks to the improved political stability, there seems to be all the requirements for highly profitable investments, as stated in these days Christina Ozgan, the local Minister of Economy. For a long time, regional conflicts and international tensions have hampered the development of an extremely varied landscape which proved to be very interesting for different business initiatives. But today, in sight of the 2014 Olympic Winter Games in Sochi, few miles from the Abkhazian border, Sergej Bagapsh and his government could show to the international community the reality of a finally resurrected Abkhazia.
In the new multipolar structure, fully in the consolidation phase, Africa risks becoming, for economic and geostrategic reasons, the stakes between the western system, led by the US, and the Euro-Asiatic powers, Russia, China and India. In order to prevent and block that possibility, and especially to take on a decisive global in the medium and long term, the continental integration of Africa represents a need and a challenge which the African ruling classes are urgently called to answer. Such integration must probably be configured on a regional basis, following three principal lines: from the Mediterranean, from the Indian Ocean and from the Atlantic Ocean.
The world financial crisis is not just about money though it started on Wall Street, says Tiberio Graziani, editor of Eurasia magazine on geopolitical studies and author of many books on geopolitics. RussiaToday spoke to Graziani in Rome.